Graphics Display Controller NEC µPD7220 . Talking about Graphics all computers have a Graphics chip either inbuild or added Additionally anyway, we all heard about the term Graphics and Graphical Display. so what exactly is Graphics Display Controller ? let’s read . The High-Performance Graphics Display Controller 7220 (commonly µPD7220 or NEC 7220) is a video interface controller capable of drawing lines, circles, arcs, and character graphics to a bit-mapped display.The µPD7220 was one of the first implementations of a graphics display controller as a single Large Scale Integration(LSI) integrated circuit chip, enabling the design of low-cost, high-performance video graphics cards such as those from Number Nine Visual Technology. It became one of the best known of what were known as graphics processing units in the 1980s.
Graphics Display Controller NEC µPD7220 was developed by NEC and used in NEC’s PC-9801 and APC III computers, the NEC N5200 intelligent kanji terminal, the optional graphics module for the DEC Rainbow, the Tulip System-1, and the Epson QX-10.
NEC Corporation is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. NEC provides IT and network solutions to enterprises, communications services providers and to government agencies. The company was known as the Nippon Electric Company, Limited and its NEC Semiconductors business unit was one of the worldwide top 20 semiconductor sales leaders before merging with Renesas Electronics. NEC is a member of the Sumitomo Group, kunihiko Iwadare and Takeshiro Maeda established Nippon Electric Limited Partnership on August 31,1898 by using facilities that they had bought from Miyoshi Electrical Manufacturing Company. Iwadare acted as the partner, Maeda handled company sales. Western Electric, which had an interest in the Japanese phone market, was represented by Walter Tenney Carleton, Carleton was also responsible for the renovation of the Miyoshi facilities. It was agreed that the partnership would be reorganized as a company when treaty would allow it. On July 17,1899, the treaty between Japan and the United States went into effect. Nippon Electric Company, Limited was organized the day with Western Electric Company to become the first Japanese joint-venture with foreign capital. Ernest Clement and Carleton were named as directors, Maeda and Mototeru Fujii were assigned to be auditors. Iwadare, Maeda and Carleton handled the overall management, the company started with the production, sales and maintenance of telephones and switches. NEC modernized the facilities with the construction of the Mita Plant in 1901 at Mita Shikokumachi. It was completed in December 1902, the Japanese Ministry of Communications adopted a new technology in 1903, the common battery switchboard supplied by NEC. The common battery switchboards powered the subscriber phone, eliminating the need for a permanent magnet generator in each subscribers phone, the switchboards were initially imported, but were manufactured locally by 1909. NEC started exporting telephone sets to China in 1904, in 1905, Iwadare visited Western Electric in the U. S. to see their management and production control. On his return to Japan he discontinued the system of sub-contracting and replaced it with a new system where managers. Inefficiency was also removed from the production process, the company paid higher salaries with incentives for efficiency. New accounting and cost controls were put in place, and time clocks installed, between 1899 and 1907 the number of telephone subscribers in Japan rose from 35,000 to 95,000
The Epson QX-10 is a microcomputer running CP/M or TPM-III which was introduced in 1983. The European and Japanese versions were like the CP/M configurations, TPM-III was used for Valdocs and some copy protected programs like Logo Professor. The machine had internal extension slots, which could be used for serial ports, network cards or third party extensions like an Intel 8088 processor. Rising Star Industries was the primary American software vendor for the HASCI QX series, the Abacus boots MS-DOS2.11 from 64 KB ROM and has 3½ floppy drives. The sound chip and the ports are more like a gamers machine. Its successor, the dual-processor QX-16, added a 16-bit Intel processor with Color Graphics Adapter enabling it to also boot MS-DOS2.11, the case of the QX-16 was enlarged to provide enough physical space for an internal hard-drive in contrast to the QX-10s dual-floppy configuration. A version designed to run on the IBM PC was in development when Rising Star closed in 1986, Valdocs shipped to beta testers c. late 1982. Beta and initial production releases of Valdocs application modules were written in the Forth programming language while its system-oriented modules were written in Z-80 Assembly Language, later releases of Valdocs applications were written in the C programming language with some modules written in compiled RSI Basic. Chris Rutkowski and Roger Amidon worked on the preliminary QX-10 design, Amidon continued designing software for the QX system after Epson, graphic and other software for the QX-10 and QX-16 were developed by program designers such as Dan Oja and Nelson Donley. Switching between programs was done by pressing an associated hotkey on the QX-10s keyboard or by selecting a program from a menu the hotkey invoked, the keyboard was referred to as HASCI after the user interface with the same name pioneered by Rising Star Industries. Valdocs on the QX-10 was very slow and buggy, InfoWorlds 1983 review of the QX-10 described the software as great idea, questionable implementation. It reported that Valdocs on the computer is slow, sometimes it merely dawdles slightly, but other times, it crawls. Entering text becomes a pastime when the screen display lags as many as 60 characters behind your typing. The magazine added that VALDOCS crashed numerous times while we were using it to write this review and we lost data each time, came close to losing a whole disk, and ended up retyping it into our trusty IBM PC to meet deadline. It advised users to backup their files, but stated that since the process was so slow the computer encouraged them to doing so until it was too late. While praising the QX-10 itself and Valdocs ease of use, Jerry Pournelle wrote in BYTE in August 1983 that the first problem is obvious from the side of the room. It seems to take forever to do disk operations, getting from the beginning to the end of a six-page document takes 15 seconds. Deleting the first three pages of the same document takes 20 seconds and he believed that the software has pushed the Zilog Z80 chip past its limits